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Marketing in the New Millennium


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Proceedings of ANZMAC99

Australian & New Zealand
Marketing Academy Conference

School of Marketing
University of New South Wales
Sydney NSW 2052

28 November - 1 December 1999

Edited by Jack Cadeaux & Mark Uncles


Marketing in the Third Millennium:
Proceedings of ANZMAC99

ISBN 0 7334 0572 X

Official address:
School of Marketing
University of New South Wales
Sydney 2052 AUSTRALIA



ANZMAC website

Price of proceedings AU$100

All papers in this publication have been fully subject to peer review using a double-blind refereeing process. Papers written by members of the ANZMAC99 Organising Committee were also processed using the same double-blind refereeing process, with careful precautions taken to protect the anonymity of both authors and reviewers. A list of reviewers is included after the welcome message.

The information contained in this publication is correct at the time of publishing. Considerable effort was made to include all refereed and accepted Competitive Papers in the Proceedings. Papers submitted after the editing deadline of 4th November 1999 may be listed in the conference timetable and may be presented at the conference, but they are not included in this publication.

It should be noted that all successful authors were issued with guidelines for the preparation of the final electronic copy. The maximum length of Competitive Papers was 5 pages plus references (inclusive of all figures, tables, etc.). This guideline was imposed throughout. However, where authors did not comply with other instructions, their papers have been presented as submitted. Note that the process of converting some papers to PDF has caused some papers to expand to where they exceed that limit even though the original met it.

Welcome to ANZMAC99

Marketing in the Third Millennium

As we enter the new millennium, the discipline and practice of marketing is at the forefront of many critical aspects of management. It is a dynamic facet of every modern economy. Those working in the area are having to face profound changes as a result of product innovation, new means of getting goods and services to market, interactive communications, e-commerce, globalisation, mass customisation, intensification of competition, and many other pressures.

Along with these developments are new challenges for marketing educators. The demand for marketing courses is higher than ever, both as an area of independent study and as an integral component of broadly-based management courses. New modes of delivery are being introduced, taking advantage of modern technologies. Keen interest is emerging in many newly developing markets, especially China. At the same time, resources for marketing education and the professional development of marketers have often failed to rise in line with the increase in demand. There is a sense in which the discipline has become a victim of its own success.

A perusal of the papers shows that all these themes and issues are under consideration at the conference. All mainstream features of marketing are addressed - international and global product management, relationship marketing, consumer loyalty, pricing and promotion strategies, marketing communications, new product/service development, etc. Among emerging themes, we note the inclusion of papers on business networks, international alliances, social and arts marketing, electronic/digital media, web-survey methods and on-line marketing education.

Critical issues for the future are addressed in papers such as "Opinion Leadership among Leading Edge Users" and "Global Brands: Myth or Reality?" Other papers focus on specific functional aspects of the discipline, including: "Pricing Subscription Services", "The Analysis of Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Integrated Services" and "Sponsorship Exit Strategies". As these titles indicate, there is healthy variety in the range of topics that are currently capturing the imagination of academic marketers.

Also in keeping with the theme of the conference are a number of special sessions. One session promises a lively debate on "The Unintended Consequences of Marketing". Another looks at the future of marketing - how are we to use technology, just what are the professional development needs of marketers, in what ways can bodies like ANZMAC assist? We are confident that these and many other issues will be hotly debated in and out of the conference sessions, making ANZMAC99 a most stimulating and memorable event.



The Authors

All authors are thanked for the amount of time and effort put into writing and preparing their papers. The work presented in the papers lies at the heart of the conference - it is the academic justification for having an annual gathering of this nature.

Fundamentally, ANZMAC99 is a regional conference, serving as a forum for researchers and educators in Australia, New Zealand and S.E. Asia to exchange ideas and report on their latest work. As befits this remit, the majority of conference delegates come from the Australasian and S.E. Asian region. Nevertheless, the conference also reaches out beyond these confines, with delegates coming from as far away as Finland, Denmark, Belgium, Canada and the USA. Also, there is in fact growing representation from Asia, including Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia and Japan. We extend a very warm welcome to all our visitors from overseas, and hope to see these ties develop over the coming years.



Words of Thanks

The success of any conference depends on careful planning and teamwork. ANZMAC99 is no exception. As co-chairs, we worked very closely with a small steering group to manage all aspects of the conference. We acknowledge the contribution, commitment and dedication of every member of this group.

Steering Group
Dr Jack Cadeaux (conference editor)
Mrs Nadia Withers (administrative support)
Ms Margot DeCelis (administrative support)
Mrs Paula Aldwell (database coordinator)
Dr Chris Dubelaar (web-page coordinator)
Dr Elizabeth Cowley (publisher/exhibitor coordinator)

Doctoral Colloquium Sub-Committee
A separate sub-committee was established for the management of the doctoral colloquium.

Dr Chris Styles
Dr Ujwal Kayande
Mr Tim Bock
Mr Farid Uddin Ahmed

We also thank the panel of experienced PhD supervisors who screened the papers for the doctoral colloquium and agreed to participate in the event. The future health of our discipline crucially depends on the professional training of doctoral candidates, and it is gratifying to see so much support for the colloquium.

Many others have assisted, not least all our colleagues in the School of Marketing and at the Australian Graduate School of Management, University of New South Wales. For their help and, on occasion, their forbearance, we are very grateful.

A special word of thanks to Dr Brendan Gray, chair of ANZMAC98, and his colleagues at the University of Otago, Dunedin. They not only showed how to manage a very professional conference, but were also prepared to share a great deal of their wisdom with us. For a "roving-conference" such as ANZMAC it is important that the learning from one year is documented and passed on to the next.

We were also helped in this by the Executive Committee of ANZMAC, under the chairmanship of Professor Rod Brodie. The Executive Committee provides a welcome sounding-board for new ideas, as well as ensuring a degree of continuity from one conference to the next. Perhaps the major innovation of ANZMAC99 was to place a 5-page limit on papers, in anticipation of a similar move by the organisers of EMAC - it is in matters such as this that we welcomed being able to call on the guidance of the Executive Committee.

Finally, we acknowledge the sponsorship of ANZMAC99 by the School of Marketing, the Faculty of Commerce and Economics, and the Centre for Applied Marketing, UNSW.

Professor Mark Uncles
A/Professor Paul Patterson
Co-chairs, ANZMAC99



Goals of the Australian & New Zealand Marketing Academy (ANZMAC)

The purpose of ANZMAC is to provide an organisation for educators and practitioners interested in marketing theory and research.

More specifically, ANZMAC has the purpose:

  1. Provide a network in the field of research in marketing in Australia, New Zealand and S.E. Asia.
  2. Provide a forum for research presentations and evaluations
  3. Provide publication outlets for high quality research, including through the official Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ) (formerly Asia-Australia Marketing Journal)
  4. Support young researchers in the field of marketing, such as through the annual Doctoral Colloquium
  5. Foster a broad variety of methodological approaches and research issues in marketing and encourage cross-fertilisation between approaches
  6. Develop an agenda of research topics


Recognise contributions to the marketing discipline The constitution also allows for other activities which ANZMAC considers will promote any or all of the purposes set out above.

All those who attend the conference and pay conference fees automatically become members of ANZMAC Inc. Non-attendees are able to join by paying separate dues to the Secretary or Treasurer.

For more information about ANZMAC, the Australasian Marketing Journal and membership, please consult the web-site: http://www.auckland.ac.nz/anzmac



List of Reviewers

We are greatly indebted to all those who assisted in the peer review process. Every submission was considered by at least two knowledgeable reviewers, drawn from the list that follows. The integrity of the conference and proceedings very much depends on the care and attention given to the review process, and we thank all those who readily offered their help and assistance.

Dr Jack Cadeaux
Conference Editor, ANZMAC99
(List of Reviewers in PDF)